The New Generation Planetary Population Synthesis (NGPPS). I. Bern global model of planet formation and evolution, model tests, and emerging planetary systems
"... We have developed a combined global planetary formation and evolution model that solves as directly as possible the underlying differential equations for the structure and evolution of the gas disc, the dynamical state of the planetesimals, the internal structure of the planets yielding their gas accretion rate and internal structure, the accretion rate of planetesimals, disc-driven orbital migration, and the gravitational interaction of concurrently forming planets via a full N-body calculation. Importantly, the model now also follows the long-term evolution of the planets on Gigayear timescales after formation including the effects of cooling and contraction, atmospheric escape, bloating, and stellar tides...."The New Generation Planetary Population Synthesis (NGPPS). II. Planetary population of solar-like stars and overview of statistical results
"We want to understand the global observable consequences of different physical processes and the initial system properties on the demographics of the planetary population. We select distributions of initial conditions that are representative of known protoplanetary discs and we use the Bern model to synthesise five planetary populations around 1 Sun-mass stars. Each population has a different initial number of Moon-mass embryos per disc to test for convergence: 1, 10, 20, 50, and 100. The last one is our nominal planetary population...."